Collection: UV India

Welcome to UV India-an innovation for infection free environment in Hospitals, Dental Clinic, Hotels, Malls, and Homes. An infectious disease attacks human beings since ancient time. It spreads through different routes like Air, Surface, Water, Direct Contacts etc.

We are incident to diseases like TB, SARS, MERS, COVID-19 or Corona virus dealt in India. Rate of Hospital or Health Associated Infections (HAI) in India is very high as compared to developed countries. Infection control measures which include engineering control and use of disinfectants and technology is not enough to control HAI.

UV-C disinfection technology is in service of Infection control since 1930 in developed countries. An expense involved in this technology was the prominent reason why it is not predominantly used in India for so many years.

We are the organization FUMIDENT® which works for infection control in health care taking this initiative to launch UV India-an innovation for infection free environment.

Our aim is to provide UV light technology in cost effective manner to health care sector and to make environment health for all generations of India.

21st century, India is not only facing the outdoor pollution but indoor too. Our young generations facing respiratory diseases like Asthma mainly because of indoor pollution. We can use UV light technology to fight against most of the pathogens (germs) to make healthy generations.

So united against these pathogens, let’s begin with new chapter of infection control in the history of Indian Health care system.

 

1. What is ultraviolet energy or light?

Ultraviolet energy is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light and longer than x-rays. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE 2003) defines the UV portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as radiation having wavelengths  between 100 and 400 nm. The UV spectrum is further divided into UVA (wavelengths of 400 to 315 nm), UVB (315 to 280 nm), UVC (280 to 200 nm), and vacuum UV (VUV; 200 to 100 nm) . The optimal wavelength for inactivating  microorganisms is 265 nm , and the germicidal effect decreases rapidly if the wavelength is not optimal.

2. Mechanism of action of UV-C

 How does it works?

UVGI inactivates microorganisms by damaging the structure of nucleic acids and proteins at the molecular level, making them incapable of reproducing. The most important of these is DNA, which is responsible for cell replication (Harm 1980). The nucleotide bases (pyrimidine derivatives thymine and cytosine, and purine derivatives guanine and adenine) absorb most of the UV energy responsible for cell inactivation (Diffey 1991; Setlow 1966). Absorbed UV photons can damage DNA in a variety of ways, but the most significant damage event is the creation of pyrimidine dimers, where two adjacent thy mine or cytosine bases bond with each other, instead of across the dou  ble helix as usual (Diffey 1991). In general, the DNA molecule with pyrimidine dimers is unable to function properly, resulting in the organism’s inability to replicate or even its death (Diffey 1991; Miller et al. 1999; Setlow 1997; Setlow and Setlow 1962). An organism that cannot reproduce is no longer capable of causing disease.

Effect on RNA: The effects of UV light on RNA are relatively unknown, although UV-C irradiation has been shown to induce mainly pyrimidine dimers and uridine hydrates (Remsen 1970) and, less frequently, unspecific chain breaks (Coahran 1962, Jericevic 1982). Base–radicals are major reactive intermediates of RNA UV-mediated degradation (Gorner 1994).

3. Microorganism inactivation by UV Disinfection

 

 

  1. What is Irradiance of UV light

Power of electromagnetic radiation incident on a surface per unit surface area, typically reported in microwatts per square centimeter (ǘW/cm2).

 

  1. What is Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI).

 Ultraviolet radiation that inactivates microorganisms. UVC energy is generated by ger micidal lamps that kill or inactivate microorganisms by emitting radiation  redominantly at a wavelength of 253.7 nm.

 

  1. What is UV dose required to kill microorganisms.

Product of UV irradiance and specific exposure time on a given microorganism or surface, typically reported in millijoules per square centimeter (mJ/cm2).

For any application, the ability of UVC to inactivate microorganiisms  is a function of dose.

Dose is the length of time of exposure multiplied by the irradiance measured in in µW/cm2 . A key difference between surface decontamination and airborne inactivation of organisms is exposure time.

 

Applications of UV-C Disinfection

 

  1. Air disinfection


UPPER ROOM AIR UV LIGHT DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGY (suggested by CDC)

(can be used in prsence of patient and Surgeon) 

 Why does it required?

The primary objective of upper-air UVC placement and use is to interrupt the transmission of airborne infectious pathogens within the indoor environment. The source of these infectious organisms may be infected humans, animals, or bioaerosols introduced for ter rorism purposes. Humans are the predominant sources of airborne agents that infect people (ACGIH 1999). The measles and influenza viruses and the tuberculosis bacterium are three important infectious organisms known to be transmitted indoors by means of air shared, by any means, between infected and susceptible persons.

Evidences:

UVC is used, in combination with other environmental controls,  to protect building occupants in all areas of concern . Since the 1930s (Riley and O’Grady 1961; Wells 1955) and continuing to the present day (First et al. 2007a, 2007b; Miller et al. 2002; Xu et al. 2003), numerous experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of upper-air UVC. Additionally, evidence of effectiveness has been established for inactivating tuberculosis (Escombe et al. 2009; Mphaphlele et 2015), reducing measles transmission in a school, and the inter ruption of influenza transmission within a hospital (McLean 1961).

 

What is it?

Various upper-air UVC devices are designed to generate a con trolled UVC field above the heads of occupants and to minimize UVC in the lower, occupied area of the room.

 

Upper-air UVC is very effective in areas with no, or minimal, ventilation; 2 air changes per hour (ach) equivalency, up to normal recommended levels of 6 ach can be achieved. Ventilation patterns (natural and mechanical) should promote good air mixing in the space equipped with UVC so that infectious microorganisms encounter the UVC zone and are inactivated, thus reducing the risk of exposure of occupants to airborne infectious agents.

 UVC fixtures are selected based on the floor-to-ceiling height. Ceiling heights above 3 m may allow for more open fixtures, which may be more efficient because they may allow for a larger irradiation zone.

The fixture should be mounted so that its UV energy is distributed parallel to the plane of the ceiling. Device construction and placement prevent excessive ultraviolet energy from striking occupants below.

Long term effectiveness evidence:

UVC fixtures can also be installed in surgical suites to disinfect surfaces and air between or during procedures. A 19-year study on UVC during orthopedic surgery showed that 47 infections occurred following 5980 joint replacements. The infection rates for total hip replacements decreased from 1.03% to 0.72% ( p = 0.5407), and for total knee replacements from 2.20% to 0.5% ( p< 0.0001). The study concluded that UVC appears to be an effective way to lower the risk of infection in the operating room during total joint replacement (Ritter et al. 2007).

 

  1. Surface disinfection (Coming Soon)




  2. Multipurpose UV Clean India Box (Coming soon)




 FAQ

Q : Can I put UVC fixtures in my home?

Yes - ultraviolet fixtures from UV India have been safely used in homes, as well as in hospitals, laboratories, clean rooms, doctors″ offices, commercial buildings, food processing plants and other commerciaand residential environments throughout the world - any place a concern for clean air exists.

Q: Do germicidal lamps kill viruses?

Yes -germicidal UVC lamps kill up to 99.9% of most viruses, airborne bacteria and mold spores.

 

Q: Can Ultraviolet Light Kill Coronavirus (Caution Required)?

Scientific Rationale

Coronaviruses are members of the Coronaviridae group and contain a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome surrounded by a corona-like helical envelope (Ryan 1994). Approximately 100 sequences of the SARS-CoV-2 genome have been published and these suggest there are two types, Type I and Type II, of which the latter came from the Huanan market in China while the Type I strain came from an unknown location (Zhang 2020). The genome consists of 29,751 base pairs (NC_045512.2) and the genome is about 80% homologous with SARS viruses (NCBI 2020, Fisher 2020). Coronaviruses have a size range of 60-140nm, with a mean size of 0.10 microns (Zhu 2020).

The different laboratory studies on ultraviolet susceptibility shown the range of D90 values for coronaviruses is 7-241 J/m2. The mean of which is 67 J/m2 , should adequately represent the ultraviolet susceptibility of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus.

(Reference: See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339887436

2020 COVID-19 Coronavirus Ultraviolet Susceptibility

Technical Report · March 2020 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22803.22566)

Q: Will germicidal UV take care of mold?

Yes. Germicidal UVC lamps will kill up to 99.9% of mold and help prevent future mold growth.

Q: How often do the lamps need to be replaced?

Germicidal UVC lamps from UV India are good for approximately 9000 hours (1 years) of continuous use, with only 15% decrease in output over the two years.

Q: Should UVC lamps be cleaned?

Yes - depending on the surrounding environment, UVC lamps should be checked periodically (approximately every three months), and can be cleaned with a dry cotton cloth or paper towel. Wear rubber gloves and clean with alcohol only. This will also help maximize lamp life.

 

 

Q: What should be the distance of surface from lamp for effective killing?

The exposure of germicidal ultraviolet is the product of time and intensity. High intensities for a short period and low intensities for a long period are fundamentally equal in lethal action on bacteria. The inverse square law applies to germicidal ultraviolet as it does to light: the killing power decreases as the distance from the lamps increases. The average bacterium will be killed in ten seconds at a distance of six inches from the lamp in an American Ultraviolet Germicidal Fixture.


Q:Does the lamps produces ozone?

No, these are ozone free lamps.

 

Q: What damage will the lamps do to me?

Prolonged, direct exposure to UVC light can cause temporary skin redness and eye irritation, but does not cause skin cancer or cataracts. American Ultraviolet systems are designed with safety in mind and, when properly installed by a professional contractor, do not allow exposure to ultraviolet irradiation and allow for safe operation and maintenance. If you are exposed to direct germicidal light, it can burn the top surface of your skin. If your eyes are exposed, it would be similar to a "welder's flash", and your eyes can feel dry or gritty. At no time do germicidal lamps cause any permanent damage.

Q: What effects does UV light have on surrounding materials?

Long-term exposure of germicidal UVC light to plastics will shorten the shelf life of the plastic by approximately 10%. Example: If the plastic would normally last about ten years, and it's exposed to germicidal UVC light the entire time, it would probably need to be replaced in 9 years. Plant life may be damaged by direct, or reflected, germicidal ultraviolet rays. Transient dyes and colors may be faded from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays.

Q: Can germicidal UVC penetrate surfaces or substances?

No - germicidal UVC sterilizes only what it comes in contact with. If you have a room sterilizer, such as one of our TB models, and there are light fixtures or fans hanging from the ceiling, the UVC light will stop when it hits these fixtures. This may require additional fixtures placed strategically in the room to ensure complete coverage.

Q: How do you determine the square footage that one germicidal UVC lamp will cover?

This is determined by the wattage of the lamp. Example: A 15-watt lamp will cover approximately 100 square feet; a 30-watt lamp will cover approximately 200 square feet.

 

Q: What safety precautions should be taken when using germicidal UVC?

In personal protection applications (the use of lamps for room irradiation in homes, schools, offices, etc.), indirect fixtures such as TB and Corner Mount fixtures are mounted above eye level. Only the upper air is irradiated and persons or animals occupying the area receive no direct exposure. Direct ultraviolet irradiations, such as American Ultraviolet's Utility Fixtures or Deluxe Surface Mounted Fixtures, irradiate the air in the entire room. In such installations, personnel should be protected by wearing either goggles or face shields, such as American Ultraviolet's Ultra-Spec 100 Safety Goggles and Ultra-Shield Face Shields designed for ultraviolet exposure, and by covering as much skin as possible with clothing or sun block.

Q: How to Maintain UV light disinfection system?

Do periodic visual inspection. Replace light if burnt out.If lamps become dirty in dusty environments, they should be cleaned with a lint-free cloth and isopropyl alcohol. Care should be taken to ensure no film remains on the surface of the lamps after cleaning. This film could reduce UV output from the lamp. Complete lamp fixtures should be replaced whenever they are visibly damaged or in accordance with manufacture warranty guidelines.

 Q: What to do on Lamp Breakage?

Cleanup with special care because of mercury drop proliferation can occur so should be performed by trained workers. As a minimum, workers should wear cut-resistant gloves, as well as safety glasses to protect eyes from glass fragments. Large bulb pieces should be carefully picked up and placed in an impervious bag. Then give the bag to BMW management person for proper disposal.

 

References

1. Remsen,J.F., Miller,N. and Cerutti,P.A. (1970) Photohydration of uridine in the RNA of coliphage R17. II. The relationship between ultraviolet inactivation and uridine photohydration. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 65, 460–466.

2. Coahran,D.R., Buzzell,A. and Lauffer,M.A. (1962) The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on nucleic acid isolated from tobacco mosaic virus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 55, 755–767.

3. Jericevic,Z., Kucan,I. and Chambers,R.W. (1982) Photochemical cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in oligoribonucleotides. Biochemistry, 21, 6563–6567.

4. Gorner,H. (1994) Photochemistry of DNA and related biomolecules: quantum yields and consequences of photoionization. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, 26, 117–139.

5. McLean, R.L. 1961. General discussion: The mechanism of spread of Asian influenza. Presented at the International Conference of Asian Influenza, Bethesda, MD. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 83(2 Part 2): 36-38.

6. Riley, R.L. 1988. Ultraviolet air disinfection for control of respiratory contagion. In Architectural design and indoor microbial pollution, pp. 179-Oxford University Press, New York.

7.  Riley, R.L., and F. O’Grady. 1961. Airborne infection—Transmission and Control. Macmillan, New York.

8. Riley, R.L., and S. Permutt. 1971. Room air disinfection by ultraviolet irradiation of upper air: Air mixing and germicidal effectiveness. Archives of Environmental Health 22(2):208-219.

9. Riley, R.L., S. Permutt, and J.E. Kaufman. 1971. Convection, air mixing, and ultraviolet air disinfection in rooms. Archives of Environmental Health 22(2):200-207.

10. Riley, R.L., M. Knight, and G. Middlebrook. 1976. Ultraviolet susceptibility of BCG and virulent tubercle bacilli. American Review of Respiratory Disease 113:413-418.

11. Ritter, M.A., E.M. Olberding, and R.A. Malinzak. 2007. Ultraviolet lighting during orthopaedic surgery and the rate of infection. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 89:1935-1940.

12. Setlow, J.K. 1966. The molecular basis of biological effects of ultraviolet radiation and photoreactivation. Current Topics in Radiation Research 2:195-248.

13. Setlow, R.B. 1997. DNA damage and repair: A photobiological odyssey. Photochemistry and Photobiology 65S:119S-122S.

14. Setlow, R.B., and J.K. Setlow. 1962. Evidence that ultraviolet-induced thymine dimers in DNA cause biological damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 48(7):1250-1257.

 15. Diffey, B.L. 1983. A mathematical model for ultraviolet optics in skin Physics in Medicine and Biology 28:657-747.

16. Diffey, B.L. 1991. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems. Physics in Medicine and Biology 36(3):299-328.

 17.Harm, W. 1980. Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

 

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